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Understanding Bloom’s Taxonomy Of Educational Objectives

  • 16 Jan 2021
  • Him Academy

Before planning a lesson, the teacher needs to answer the following questions:

  1. What is my goal and what will be my gain?
  2. What I need to cover and what needs to be uncovered?
  3. Where and how the learner’s will apply the new learning?
  4. More specifically, the teacher must identify the learning objectives and learning outcomes?

All children need a high-quality education that equips them with a broad range of knowledge, competencies, skills and personal qualities to confidently meet the challenges of life in a complex, information-rich and constantly changing world. So, for this purpose the learning objectives and outcomes of the curriculum at hand should be holistically defined. In other words, the learning objectives should address the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains which are nothing but the aspects of holistic growth involving head, heart and hand respectively.




The latest National Education Policy, prepared by Ministry of Education in India, addresses the above said perspectives of education.

This is important because there are different categories of learners who have varying needs and learning styles. So, a holistic lesson developed by a teacher requires inclusion of all the 3 domains in constructing learning tasks for students. Developing an individual’s mental ability (cognitive domain) is not the sole purpose of education. It must also enable development of attitudes(affective domain) and acquisition of new skills(psychomotor domain).

Classification of Educational Objectives

The simultaneous developments in all the three domains leading to the composite pupil growth is presented through the following diagrammatic representation given by R. H. DAVE.

 



Figure 2 shows that the interconnectedness of all the three domains leads to learning.

 

Educational objectives and corresponding action verb keywords of Bloom’s Cognitive Domain of Learning are explicitly shown in the Table 1 below:

 

Educational Objective 

Description

  Action Verb Keywords

Remembering

Recall factual Information as such.

identify, define, name, label, recognize, reproduce, list, true-false, tell, label, tabulate, what, who, when, where, how many, find the meaning, which, choose, match, Spell

Understanding

Some degree of understanding is required to change the form of communication, translate, restate what has been read or heard, see connections or relationships among parts of a communication (interpretation), draw conclusions, see consequences from information (inference).

summarize, convert, paraphrase, interpret, give examples, translate, rewrite, draw a diagram, classify, compare, explain, Solve, predict consequences, describe, distinguish, why and how​

Application​

Use the information or concept in a new situation.​ Use previously acquired information in a setting other than the one in which it was learned.  Because problems at this level are presented in a different and applied way, one cannot rely on content or context to solve the problem.

 make, construct, model, predict, apply, demonstrate, calculate, show, solve, examine,​

Analysis​

Break information or concepts into parts and understand the impact of variation of the concept.​Very similar to comprehension level but differs in the depth of presentation. Identification of logical errors (e.g., point out contradictions, erroneous inference) or differentiate among facts, opinions, assumptions, hypotheses, conclusions.  One is expected to draw relations among ideas and to compare and contrast.

 

 

analyse, infer, compare, contrast, separate​

Evaluation​

Analyzing a situation or quality and then making judgments and decisions about the methods, ideas, people, or products.  Must be able to state the bases for judgments (e.g., external criteria or principles used to reach conclusions.) 

 

critique, Judge, Justify, argue, support, assess, verify, decide, rank, measure, priortize, approve,

agree, measure, recommend, support​

Creativity​

Use old ideas to create new ones, adding something new to the already existing situation. ​

rearrange, create, rewrite, substitute, modify, invent, develop, 

change, construct, ​

Table - 1

 

 

The action verb keyword related to each cognitive objective tells the competency to be developed in the learner. However, the learner cannot master attributes of cognitive domain unless the affective domain is addressed. In addition to the focus on cognitive objectives, the teacher needs to create situation where the child receives the information/instruction, responds to it, understands its value, organizes it and then consequently converts it to be a part of her character or behavior. 

Educational objectives and corresponding action verb keywords of Affective Domain of Learning are explicitly shown in the Table 2 below:

 

Educational Objective 

Description

  Action Verb Keywords

Receiving

Awareness and  willingness to hear.  Simply listening and being attentive are the expectations. (Listening).

 

acknowledge, ask, follow, listen, attend, be aware, look, notice, hear

Responding

Active participation on the part of the learners. To attend and react to a particular stimuli or phenomenon.  One is expected to obey, participate, or respond willingly when asked or directed to do something.(Motivation).

 

answer, comply, conform, discuss, greet, help, label, perform, present, tell

applaud, participate, volunteer

Valuing

The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior.

One is expected to demonstrate a preference or display a high degree of certainty and conviction.(Commitment). 

 

appreciate, cherish, treasure, demonstrate, initiate, justifiy, propose, respect,    express,
argue,  help, convince, debate,   prefer
display 

Organizing

 Forming a reason why one values certain things and not others, making appropriate choices between things that are and are not valued.  One is expected to organize likes and preferences into a value system and then to decide which ones will be dominant. (Priortising).

 

compares, relates, synthesizes, organize

Characterization

Repeats the value or the behaviour.

Exhibits respect for the worth and dignity of human beings in all situations.  (Repeating). 

 

avoid something, exhibit, act, discriminate, display, influence, modify, perform, internalize, manage

 

Table - 2

 

 

Similarly, the learning is incomplete without the inclusion or involvement of psychomotor aspects such as fine and gross muscles of the body. Ignoring psychomotor domain may result in problems such as writing, reading, distinction of letters, ordering of syllables and much more.

Educational objectives and corresponding action verb keywords of psychomotor Domain of Learning are explicitly shown in the Table 3 below:

 

Educational Objective 

Description

  Action Verb Keywords

Imitation

The learner observes and then imitates an action.  These behaviors may be crude and imperfect.  The expectation that the individual is able to watch and then repeat an action.

follow, grasp, hold, align

Manipulation

Performance of an action with written or verbal directions but without a visual model or direct observation.  Notice that the action verbs are the same as those for the imitation stage.  The difference is that these actions are performed with the aid of written and verbal instruction, not visual demonstration.

repeat, follow, grasp, demonstrate, hold, align

Precision

Requires performance of some action independent of either written instructions or a visual model.  One is expected to reproduce an action with control and to reduce errors to a minimum.

accurate, proficient, errorless, independent  in action

Articulation

Requires the display of coordination of a series of related acts by establishing the appropriate sequence and performing the acts accurately, with control as well as with speed and timing.

 

confidence, coordination, speed

Naturalization

High level of proficiency is necessary.  The behavior is performed with the least expenditure of energy, becomes routine, automatic, and spontaneous.

automatically, spontaneously
effortlessly, with ease
naturally,  with perfection
professionally, routinely

 

Table 3

 

A sample of learning objectives/outcomes integrating all the three domains of learning is as follows:

Topic: English Lesson

Lesson Objectives:

I. The Cognitive Domain:

1. To know the new words in this lesson

2. To comprehend the meanings of the new words

3. To spell the new words correctly

4. To pronounce the new words correctly

5.  To use the new words in sentences correctly

II. The Affective Domain

1. To listen to the teacher attentively and give response appropriately.

2. To participate actively and cooperate with classmates
     willingly.

III. The Psychomotor Domain

1. To speak with proper stress and intonation.

2. To read the sentences fluently.

3. To write legibly.

Generally, the affective and psychomotor domain objectives are neglected by the teacher. The prime focus is on the cognitive domain. But it must be understood that education is incomplete without involving focus on all the three domains. Once the objectives in terms of affective and psychomotor domain are included in the teacher’s priority list, it will lead to the desired effect on the learner.

Dr. (Mrs) Himanshu Sharma

Principal (Academics)

Email: himanshuaaryan@gmail.com